Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) also known as nodular hyperplasia, benign prostatic hypertrophy (technically a misnomer) or benign enlargement of the prostate (BEP) refers to the increase in size of the prostate in middle-aged and elderly men. To be accurate, the process is one of hyperplasia rather than hypertrophy, but the nomenclature is often interchangeable, even amongst urologists. It is characterized by hyperplasia of prostatic stromal and epithelial cells, resulting in the formation of large, fairly discrete nodules in the periurethral region of the prostate. When sufficiently large, the nodules compress the urethral canal to cause partial, or sometimes virtually complete, obstruction of the urethra which interferes the normal flow of urine.
- Enlarged prostate may lead to symptoms of urinary hesitancy, frequent urination, increased risk of urinary tract infections and urinary retention.
- 50% of men have enlarged prostate by the age of 50 and 75% by the age of 80.
- Patients should decrease fluid intake before bedtime, moderate the consumption of alcohol and caffeine-containing products.